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Exploring Other ID Models

by Vira Gryaznova, Aug 21, 2021

Previously, I had worked for a long time as a university teacher without a formal pedagogical education, and that is why I had to investigate much on my own. The 9-events Gagné model appeared to be very close to my own understanding of a successful teaching process.

The Nine Events of Instruction by Gagné are:

  1. Gain Attention.

  2. State Objectives.

  3. Stimulate Recall.

  4. Present Content.

  5. Provide Guidance.

  6. Elicit Performance.

  7. Provide Feedback.

  8. Assess Performance.

  9. Enhance Retention and Transfer.

Events 1, 3, and 9 are very important to Generations Y and Z (very practice-oriented) and adult learners. Event 5 immediately recalls scaffolding. It is also obviously crucial, especially when the members of a learning group have different knowledge levels.

But the model that appeals to me now is ARCS by John Keller. The reason for such an attitude is my assuredness that motivation is the key to successful learning - and this model gives a view to the educational process exactly from the motivation side.

ARCS stands for Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction – all of them are different facets of motivation. In the latter version of the theory, Keller added one more component – Volition (thus, the model transformed to ARCS-V).

The ARCS model significantly differs from the others by the question it answers. While almost all the ID models tell us WHAT to do, the ARCS model describes more of HOW to do it: how to grab more ATTENTION of the students (for example, using humor or conflict); how to connect learning content to the knowledge and skills they already have and demonstrate the future usefulness of this content (here we mean RELEVANCE); how to make them feel more CONFIDENT (in particular, constructive feedback is precious for this purpose); how to make them feel more SATISFIED with their achievements (ideal option here is immediate practical using, especially for adult learners); and, in the extended model, how to support the learners throughout the learning process (here we have VOLITION).

The steps of motivational design by Keller are:

  1. Obtain course information.

  2. Obtain audience information.

  3. Analyze audience.

  4. Analyze other course elements.

  5. List objectives and assessments.

  6. List potential tactics.

  7. Select & design tactics.

  8. Integrate with instruction.

  9. Select and develop materials.

  10. Evaluate and revise.

Keller pointed that the steps 3, 6 and 7 are the most important ones.

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